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Feeding

Transitioning from breast milk or formula to other milk 

Your child’s healthcare provider will let you know when it is okay to transition away from breast milk or formula and what type of milk is best to start with. The general trend right now seems to be to do this when babies are around the age of one. 

Dr. Beverly Huang ND generally recommends, after age one, to first transition children to sheep or goat’s milk before introducing cow’s milk. According to Dr. Beverly, “sheep’s milk is naturally sweeter than goat or cow’s milk and sheep and goat’s milk are more similar to the profile of breast milk compared to cow’s milk.” 

If you are having difficulty transitioning your child from breast milk to formula or other type of milk, start by mixing the two in a bottle (or sippy cup). Start with ¾ breast milk and ¼ formula/milk, then go down to ½ and ½, followed by ¼ breast milk and ¾ formula/milk and so on. Always throw away the leftover portion, especially of it contains formula (for health safety, never reheat!). Like most other things that involve your child, you should ask her healthcare provider if they are comfortable with this process before you do it.

Transitioning from a bottle to a sippy cup (and away from the nighttime bottle feeding)

You may find that your child is ready to transition to a sippy cup at around the same time that you transition them from breast milk or formula to another type of milk. An easy way to make this transition is to start each bottle-feeding with a sippy cup nipple for a few minutes before offering a bottle. Eventually your child will get used to drinking out of a sippy cup and you won’t need to switch to a bottle at all. 

You may also want teach your child how to drink out of a normal cup. Chances are they will want to try this on their own if they see you drinking out of a cup or if they have an older sibling that can do it!

If you plan to use a potty training method that requires you to switch to underwear for day as well as nighttime, you may want to ensure that your child no longer requires a bottle (or sippy cup) with milk in it before bed – if you offer your child liquids before bed they may be more prone to have an accident at night. You could try to replace a liquid feeding before bed by giving them a snack such as yogurt instead. For more about this, see our potty training tips below.

Feeding solids

By now you have likely already introduced water and solids to your child. You may also have already noticed that as your child gets older she will begin drink less milk and eat more solid foods. You may also find that texture and how you present the food becomes important, which means that it’s time to get creative! A few great tips are below.

  • Introduce new textures slowly

    Transition to solids slowly by moving away from finely pureed foods to pureed foods with a bit more texture. Then slowly introduce finger foods, making sure they are cut into very small pieces because your child may not be chew her food as well as you might like. You can do this even if your child doesn’t have a full set of teeth yet but please do not ever leave your child unattended while they are eating to make sure they're not overfilling their mouth with food!

  • Try plain foods first then slowly add new things

    Transitioning out of purees may take a long time and there is no need to rush the process. When your child first begins to eat solids, avoid offering foods with more than one texture (like pizza or pasta for example) because it may be too many new textures at once. Also, begin with desirable finger foods like O's that are rather bland, but kids seem to like them and it gives them practice with solids.

  • Make meals more fun

    There are so many things that you can do, just to name a few:

    • start with tiny portions (it seems less overwhelming that way)

    • cut things up into fun shapes, such as thin apple or cheese spears because it’s easy to hold and it might get your child to use her back teeth if she has them

    • grate raw food, like carrots with cucumber (it is less likely for kids to choke on and we like the idea of giving kids raw food)

    • present less appealing foods, such as vegetables, beside your child’s favourite foods as an incentive for her to eat more

    • adding your child’s favourite toppings or dips to food can be helpful (for example, squeeze lemon juice or add a little butter, coconut oil or cheese to veggies, add spices like cinnamon, or put ketchup, mustard or salsa on the side)

    • use fun names for vegetables (broccoli could be called trees and cauliflower could be snow covered trees, etc.) - older siblings can help with this!

  • Don’t force your child to eat foods they don't want to eat, and don't stop giving them what they love to eat (unless there's a good reason to)

    If your child doesn’t seem to want to eat a certain food, don’t make a big deal about it. Wait a few weeks or a month then gently try to introduce it again, they may come around. Don't give up try and remain calm, no matter how frustrated you may be (and it is frustrating!). Some children take many exposures to new foods before really loving them! Also, don't stop giving your child what she loves to eat, keep giving it to her as well as trying new things. Note that if things don't improve over a couple months and there may be reason for concern, you may want to check with your child’s healthcare provider.

  • Empower your child

    Let your child squish and touch the food, this is part of the process and shouldn't be discouraged. You can also give your child their own child-size spoon or fork and let them try to feed themselves if they shows an interest. You may need to feed them with another spoon or fork to make sure they get enough food before they get the hang of it. Don’t forget to let your child know that you are proud of them even if you have a huge mess to clean up!

Check out our nutrition tips recipes, and meal plans.

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Sleep

If your child already sleeps though the night at this stage then it’s probably just a matter of continuing on with what you’ve already been doing. If she is not sleeping through the night, Calmmother Feeding and Sleep Program provides a straightforward approach to help transition children to a predictable sleep schedule. 

Sorry to be the bearer of bad news but if your child is in the habit of waking up at night at this age, you may be faced with a significant amount of crying when you sleep train them. The bigger they are, the louder (and longer) they cry.

These are our top 3 tips for creating and maintaining a consistent bedtime routine for children.

1.     Create bedtime routine ASAP! 

Hopefully you've figure out what sleep habits work for you and your family when your baby is a newborn or soon after. This is particularly helpful if you also have older children with their own scheduled activities. Know what is convenient and your preferences in terms of after school activities, your bedtime routine (dinner, playtime, bath time, snack time and story time), and what bedtime and breakfast times fit within your family's schedule.

If you have more then one child with varied age gaps, you may want to choose a bedtime routine starting point that is based on the youngest child. For example, if you have a a 15 month old and a 4 year old and bedtime for the 15 month old is 7pm, consider having the 4 year old start quiet time at 7pm, either playing quietly or reading in their room and go down for bed at 7:30pm. Staggering bedtimes helps mom and dad out and also allows for each child to get some individual parent time. 

2.     Be consistent

Whatever sleep routine you choose, make sure that you are executing it in the same order every night as often as possible. Little children do well when they know what is expected and what is coming up next. So having a snack follower by bath time, brushing teeth, story and then bedtime allows them to know what to expect next (and also less whining and asking for things outside of the routine).

3.     Do not negotiate

If you give an inch, they may try to take a mile. If you build a snack, drink of water or potty into the bedtime rountine your child can't ask to get out of bed for the toilet, a bedtime snack or a drink after you have put them to bed. Stay tuned for our top tips for sleep training toddlers and preschoolers. 

For potty training purposes, transitioning to a small snack before bed rather than a drink can be helpful to avoid accidents at night. read more about potty training below.

Dropping naps

An adequate amount of sleep is important for your child's growth and development. If you drop naps too early you could risk throwing off your child's ability to sleep through the night – if they get too overtired they may not be able to fall or stay asleep.

How much sleep your child should have

Every child’s need for sleep (hours napped during the day plus the hours at night) is going to be different and can vary based on their age and activity level.

The average 2-3 year old requires between 12-14 hours of sleep total with 10-12 hours during the night and 1-3 hours during the day. The total amount of sleep for children ages 4-5 is 10-12 hours usually all at night however some in this age group require a shorter nap during the day. Dr. Pam's post about how much sleep children should get discusses the number of hours children should sleep (including naps) based on age groups 2-3, 4-5 and 6-12 years.

A smooth transition

As discussed above, your child may continue to have a nap each day, after lunch, until she is 3 or even 4 years old (or beyond!). In our Feeding and Sleep Program, we recommend waiting to drop the early morning nap, after breakfast, until your child is around a year old. At that point your toddler will continue to have an hour and a half to three hour long nap after lunch. Coincidentally, this is when most daycares we know schedule naps for children. 

Consider the following when your dropping naps to keep things as smooth as possible:

  • Transition slowly to avoid disrupting your family's bedtime routine

If you drop a child's nap(s) too early, you could risk throwing off their bedtime or ability to sleep through the night. You may find that if they get too overtired they may not be able to fall or stay sleep.

Your toddler may need a half hour to three hour nap each day (or every few days, and eventually on weekends only) at least until they are three years old. However, your baby or toddler may drop all of their naps or be ready to reduce the length of their naps earlier than expected, possibly as early as 18 months. If so, consider introducing quiet time for 30 minutes to an hour or two each day after lunch where they can play alone in their crib or playpen.

Two important considerations for parents when transitioning out of naps slowly to make sure their child is still getting enough sleep are:

  1. Shorten nap times before phasing them out altogether - You may notice that as you child is transitioning out of their morning or afternoon nap that their naps are shorter. You may also find that when you've cut out either of these two naps during that day that the remaining nap is longer. Typically children's naps are 1-3 hours each but they could be as short as 45 minutes (or even half an hour if that works for you and your child).

  2. Phase naps out one day at a time - When your child is only napping once each day, consider taking away their daily nap every second day only, or just weekends first. From there you can drop naps down to three, then two then one day a week, or as needed when your child is tired.

  • Make bedtime earlier, if necessary

If your child is more fatigued than you think they should be, consider an earlier bedtime for them. Ideally your bedtime is flexible (between 7 and 8 p.m. for example) to avoid meltdowns when you're out later than their usual bedtime.

As discussed by Dr. Pam, if your child is getting the required numbers of hours of sleep, it is important to rule out nutritional deficiencies as a potential cause contributing to their fatigue. Consult with your child's healthcare provider if you have any concerns about sleep or nutritional deficiencies.

  • Teach your child quiet time as soon as possible (preferably as a baby)

This is something that is suggested in our baby feeding and sleep program! Teaching your baby (or older child) to be able to lay or play quietly in their crib (or bedroom) when it is nap time until it is time to wake up. After your child stops napping, if you would still like quiet time each day, convey to your child that it is quiet time and that they need to play alone. 

Children all so different but firmness, managing expectations and consistency is so important for each of them.

Our top 5 tips for sleep training babies over one year, toddlers and small children

1.     Develop and follow a consistent feeding and sleep routine as soon as possible! 

Hopefully you've figure out what sleep habits work for you and your family when your baby is a newborn or soon after. This is particularly helpful if you also have older children with their own scheduled activities. Know what is convenient and your preferences in terms of after school activities, your bedtime routine (dinner, playtime, bath time, snack time and story time), and what bedtime and breakfast times fit within your family's schedule.

This also includes cutting out naps when it is appropriate. As discussed by Dr. Pamela Smith, ND in her post about how much sleep each child should have based on age, every child’s need for sleep is going to be different and can vary based on their age and activity level. This includes hours napped during the day plus the hours at night.

2.     Make your consistent bedtime routine a family conversation

Whatever your process, explain things clearly and make sure your child understands that the bedtime routine is not negotiable. If you've been using the Calmmother baby feeding and sleep program then you're child will likely be familiar with a well established routine. If this is new to your child, talking them through the routine and explaining what happens and when (and if appropriate, even why you do it). Your child should understand that everyone needs sleep so that they can get enough rest and be alert for the next day. Using the same words for consistency can also be helpful: it's bedtime, I love you, time to close your eyes and go to sleep.  

If your child is too young to understand words, you can use pictures on a chart or a picture book (or demonstrate yourself) to show what the rountine looks like before bed. I did this with my two youngest boys when they were little -- and they loved it because we would look at the chart everytime we were finished a step in the routine!

3.     Be firm and break habits before they start

Parents should aware and okay with the habits they allow in their home. This involves knowing your preferences and which habits you are comfortable with. For example, if you don't want you child to be dependent on a soother to put them to sleep, consider only giving your child a soother when necessary from the beginning or ween them off of it (I.e., only use if you are in public and your baby is having a meltdown).

The same goes for other sleep props such as baby swings, rocking chairs, sound machines, as well as stuffed animals and special blankets for toddlers. If you're comfortable with light shining into your child's room, consider leaving their door open and either having a nighlight plugged into hallway outlet or even leaving the hall light on.

4.     Be persistent

Do not allow your child to incorporate new things into their bedtime routine, such as extra stories, a nightlight or a glass of milk before bed. 

If your child is asking for a bottle before bed, try transition to a bedtime snack instead, like cheese of yogurt. From one year onward, consider limiting liquids after dinner (1.5 to 2 hours before bedtime) to help with potty training, otherwise if can be difficult to get them to sleep through the night. For more on potty training read this post.

You may need to shut the nightlight (or hallway light) off if your child gets out of bed so that they know you're serious. Or more drastic, shut their door and hold it from the outside to teach your child that they cannot get out of bed. Again, explain what is going on to your child especially if this is new to them. 

If your child wakes up in the middle of the night and come to your bed, walk them back to their own bed without saying anything. This prevents them being able to negotiate with you! You may have to walk them back to bed a few times in the middle of the night for a few days before they know your serious about bedtime. 

You may need to repeat the same thing over and over again until your child learns that you will not back down and that bedtime is simply not negotiable.

5.     Be prepared for long nights and tears (your tears and theirs)

Unfortunately with older children, sleep training may mean tears (sometime hours of them before bed or in the middle of the night), especially when you reinforce what you say. You want your child to take you seriously. Giving in will undermine your authority.

Always check on your child if you are concerned with their wellbeing. This is where a baby monitor with a camera may come in handy.

For more questions and answers about feeding and sleep, check out this page.

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Potty Training

If there’s one thing we know about potty training it’s that there are no set rules! The experience will be different for every child. Trust us when we say that the process for some children will be much quicker and easier than others. 

Below are our tips for successful potty training, including recommendations for two great potty training methods. Find out which books we recommend to support potty training here.

Tips for successful potty training

  • Wait until your child is 18 months old and is interested in using the toilet – Both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society recommend starting to potty train after two things occur. First, when your child is 18 months old and second, after she shows interest in it (note 1). Waiting until your child shows an interest in going on a potty can help to avoid unnecessary stress for everyone involved! Other signs that your child may be ready include the ability to dress herself, showing an interest in wearing underwear, letting you know that her diaper is wet or dirty, or showing a clear dislike for being in wet or dirty diapers (or disliking being in diapers generally).

  • Be patient and supportive – Always be positive and gentle with your child when potty training her, and never show your frustration. (That being said, we won’t fault you for getting cross with your child if she intentionally soils your floors, walls or furniture in an effort to be naughty or get your attention!). If your child genuinely doesn’t seem to be getting the hang of it after a week of trying, consider taking a break for a few weeks before trying again.

  • Check out a few potty training methods to see what you think will work for you and your child – There isn’t much scientific information about toilet training and there is no solid evidence proving that one specific method is superior to all others - generally speaking, personal preference and cultural differences govern accepted norms about potty training (note 2). The potty training methods we recommend are discussed below. Please share your feedback with us about potty training methods you like.

  • Talk to your child about the process – Talking to your child about potty training and seeing her reaction can help determine readiness. You may find that demonstrating with a doll or yourself is helpful, or reading picture books about going to the washroom on a toilet (check out our blog post Seven effective picture books to support potty training).

  • Increase liquids during the day and avoid them a few hours before bedtime – Depending on how often your child goes to the washroom, you may find it helpful to increase the amount of liquids you give her during the day so that there are more opportunities for her to go to the potty. If you plan to start potty training at 18 months, you may want to start weaning your child from her bedtime feeding sometime after she is 14 months. You may want to do this slowly to avoid stressing out your child unnecessarily, perhaps waiting until after you transition her from a bottle to a sippy cup. This will be especially important if you plan on putting underwear on your child at night rather than diapers or training pants, to help avoid accidents. As discussed in the Calm Potty Training Method, if your child wears underwear at night, you may want to take her to the washroom once or twice after dinner and before she goes to bed (and maybe even once before you go to bed as long as it doesn’t disrupt your child’s sleep schedule).

  • Friendly reminders (to help avoid accidents) – Ask your child to tell you before she has to go to the washroom. Also ask her regularly if she has to go to help remind her. Children tend to forget about going to the washroom, especially when they are having fun playing!

  • Learn to recognize the signs – Teaching yourself to watch for the signs can make potty training your child a lot quicker and easier. If you pay attention, you will soon find that there are a few telltale signs that your child has to use the washroom. For example, putting her hand between her legs, crossing her legs, fidgeting, sitting on the floor and rocking, or she may just look up at you or try to get your attention in some other way. Let us know what other signs you think indicate that a child needs to use the washroom.

  • Rewards and positive reinforcement are great incentives – Things like stickers and other little gifts tend to work great when potty training no matter what method you prefer. Remember that the prize you choose to give your child each time she successfully uses the potty may become into something she is accustomed to receiving each time she goes, so make your selection carefully. (Talk to your healthcare provider if you plan to use food as a reward). Being positive and enthusiastic about your child’s potty training progress will help make it easier to transition away from rewarding her with a gift each time she goes on the potty.

  • Get must-have products – The things listed below can help make potty training a lot easier.

    • Training pants, pull-up diapers and lots of underwear: Whether you choose to use training pants, pull-ups or underwear may depend on the potty training method you choose, or whether your child is prone to having accidents. Some methods suggest that you throw away diapers from the moment you start training (yes, this means no diapers day or night). Either way, you may want to have a number of pairs of underwear on hand to avoid doing a number of loads of wash each day.

    • Children’s potty: A child’s potty can be really helpful if you begin potty training when your child is younger (i.e., only 18 months) or on the smaller side. A potty can also be helpful if your child wants to go without assistance from an adult or if you want to encourage her to go by herself at night but you are concerned that she might fall off. We like the BabyBjörn Smart Potty because it has a non-slip rubber bottom, it’s easy to clean and is super portable (great for road trips and camping with kids)!

    • Toilet insert: This makes going to the washroom on a toilet a lot easier for little tikes. But the brand is key, especially if you want to avoid messes from leaky inserts! You may also want to pick up a stool to help your child get up on the toilet (preferably one that is non-slip at the bottom). Check out the BabyBjörn Toilet Trainer and Step Stool – the insert is adjustable which helps prevent leaking at the sides and bottom (you can hang it up!), and the stool has rubber at the bottom to avoid slipping.

    • Reusable bed mats: These are great for helping to protect bed linens and mattresses when your child has an accident at night (no one wants to re-make a bed in the middle of the night!). Some companies that make diapers also make portable bed mats, which are great for packing when you are going on a vacation.

Recommended potty training methods

Below are two very different yet equally effective approaches to potty training. They are most effective if used after children are 18 months old and showing signs of readiness.

The Calm Potty Training Method

This relaxed, straightforward and child-led approach to potty training allows you to quickly and easily train your child how to use the potty stress-free.

This method is great because it allows you to go about your day almost completely as usual since the potty is always close by your child (which helps to prevent accidents). If you need or want to go out with your child during the potty training process, just put her pull-ups or training pants on, and go. It also allows you to use diapers or training pants at night until your child’s bladder has developed to a point that she no longer has accidents at night. 

3 Day Potty Training by Lora Jensen      

This practical method works well, especially if you want to potty train your child in the span of three days. However, it takes a lot of dedication and literally all of your time and attention for the days you are potty training. This is because you are constantly running your child to the bathroom each time she starts to go or when she tell you that she has to go. You have to devote three days (or more if your child doesn’t catch on right away) to sticking to your child like glue 24-7. This can be difficult if you have other children to care for or other responsibilities to attend to. If you decide to use this method, you may want to consider pre-making your meals for the days you’re potty training so that you can focus 100% on potty training your child. 

Also keep in mind that if you are using this method your child will be wearing underwear day and night. This means that accidents can be pretty messy, especially at night, until your child no longer has accidents!

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Curiosity and creativity (toddler-proofing)

Watching your little one progress from crawling to walking is a milestone to be celebrated. The world suddenly opens up and within it are a plethora of things to grab, climb on and stick in your mouth! Toddlers are naturally curious, adventurous and depending on their age, can be a little bit sneaky. In other words, this is not the time to let up on childproofing your home! The older children get the higher they can climb to reach the things they want to get their hands on rRead this post for tips about baby proofing your home). 

Your child’s age, their abilities and their temperament can help determine the extent of proofing you may require. While your parenting style and comfort level will also guide you, keep in mind that the single leading cause of death in children over one is unintentional injury, many of which are preventable. 

While you can’t prevent all accidents from happening, there are things you can do around your home to help keep your toddler safe from danger. Here is a list of common hazards to watch out for:

Bed

  • Ensure your crib meets the federal safety standards

  • Lower crib railing if you have a child who is a climber (seems counter intuitive but may help prevent injury)

  • Do not leave toys, puffy blankets or pillows in the child’s bed (consider putting child to sleep in a sleep sack until she is out of her crib)

  • When your child is 35 inches tall, you can consider moving her to a bed

  • Use a safety railing to ensure your child does not roll out of bed

  • Do not leave smaller toys inside larger plastic bags (toys can be dumped and bag can be placed over head)

Bedroom

  • Remove small choking hazards from room, especially at bedtime (as a general rule, anything that can fit inside a toilet paper roll is a choking hazard)

  • Ensure all large furniture pieces that can topple are bolted to the wall with furniture straps

  • Tie or bind all dangling cords on window covers

  • Avoid placing furniture that a child can climb in front of a window

  • Do not trust that a screen will protect your child from a fall! If you do want to open the window, consider window stops or guardsthat restrict how far it can open (these apparatuses should be strong enough to prevent your toddler from removing but easy for you to remove in the event of a fire)

  • Cover all electrical outlets and remove all wires or appliances that plug in

  • Consider a baby monitor, preferably with video, so you can check on them regularly but make sure the cord is secure and out of reach

Kitchen

  • When you can, cook on the back burners with pot handles facing the back of stove

  • Never leave cooking food unattended on stove, even for a minute

  • Secure oven door with a clamp

  • Put a latch on drawers containing knives or other sharp objects

  • Household cleaning items (including dishwasher tabs) should be placed out of reach

  • Unplug kitchen appliances that sit on the counter and don’t keep cords dangling

  • Be aware of food in the fridge or pantry that your child may have access to and place out of sight or reach

  • Keep hot food and drink away from table/counter edges

  • Avoid table cloths or runners that can be pulled down

  • When placing a toddler in a highchair, ensure the seatbelt is still being used

Bathroom

  • Do not ever leave a child unsupervised in the bathtub, even for a minute

  • Use an anti-slip bath mat

  • Adjust thermostat to monitor hot water temperature below 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.89 degrees Celsius) or attach a bathtub spout

  • Remove water as soon as bath is done

  • Ensure all vitamins, medications and other poisonous items are secure in medicine cabinet

  • Keep all makeup, razors, pins, perfume, mouthwash, nail polish and remover scissors or other harmful objects out of reach

  • Keep the toilet seat down or latched (or keep the bathroom door shut)

  • Clean bath toys regularly with vinegar and warm water to avoid mildew and mold, especially inside squeeze toys

Living room/Family room

  • All electrical outlets should be covered

  • Secure all large furniture pieces, like bookshelves and televisions, to the wall

  • Watch for lamps that can topple and secure all cords

  • All drapes or blind cord strings should be cut or secured

  • Cover all sharp corners with edge guards

  • Avoid placing breakable items within reach, including picture frames

  • Remove all poisonous plants or keep them out of reach

  • Avoid clutter or area rugs that your child could trip on

  • Blow out the pilot light to your electrical fireplace or install a fireplace safety gate

Other considerations

  • Use safety gates to restrict access to particular areas or rooms (remember to allow your child to practice going up and down the stairs with your supervision)

  • Avoid placing furniture pieces by windows or overlooks in your house

  • All doors leading outside or to the garage should be locked (consider installing a high lock or dead bolt if they learn to manipulate a regular door lock)

  • Place stickers or other markers on patio doors at toddler eye level

  • Lock all accessible windows

  • Use door stops to protect fingers

  • Use door knob covers when trying to prevent access into a room

  • Use child-resistant covers if you have accessible garbage cans

  • All guns and ammunition should be removed from the house or locked in a safe place

Don’t forget to check your backyard, garage and vehicle for safety hazards as well, including making sure the child safety door and window locks are on when driving!

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Discipline

When it comes to parenting and discipline, Dr. Shefali's ideas can be helpful, especially if you're trying to avoid traditional fear-based discipline tactics. It's not always easy be calm but honouring your child's natural state of being is important.

Have you ever noticed that children tend to act up more when they're on a sugar high, hungry or tired (including crashing from a sugar high). These are all things that usually can be controlled by parents. Monitoring energy levels, deep breathing and emphasizing the importance of personal space ca help mitigate this type of behaviour. And communication means everything, including regular check-ins to see how everyone is feeling!  

Toddlers and preschoolers like to test boundaries when given the opportunity. For younger children, the concept of a timeout bubble tends to work like a charm almost every time because you are not limited to a time or place (and the child also has control over your timeout bubble if you do something wrong - like swearing for example :). Essentially it works like this:

  • child (or parent) demonstrates inappropriate behaviour

  • parent puts child in a timeout bubble (likewise, child can put parent in a timeout bubble) and explains clearly why child is in the bubble

  • when in a timeout bubble, the child can go anywhere in the home but must sit quietly by themselves and reflect on what they've done wrong (or if parent prefers child may be required to stay in eye's view)

  • child (or parent) is permitted to come out of the timeout bubble after apologizing and speaking about what happened and how to better behave in the future (at this point it's also nice to have a big hug and a reminder of how much you love them!).

As children get older, family discussions and taking things away (for hours, days or weeks) tends to be more a more effective way of curbing unacceptable behaviour, especially use of electronics. 

See this post for more about the timeout bull and this post for discipline children school aged and beyond.

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Sources

1. When and how to toilet train children. Canadian Medical Association Journal: http://www.cmaj.ca/site/misc/pr/8aug11_pr.xhtml [Accessed June 2014].
2. Darcie A. Kiddoo, MD. Toilet training children: when to start and how to train. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (Canadian Medical Association Journal: March 20, 2012; 184(5): 511)): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3307553/ [Accessed June 2014].

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